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singer.gif (12947 bytes)Margaret Thaler Singer, Ph.D.

Emeritus adjunct professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley.

 

A Loss for the Family Field: The Death of Margaret T. Singer
 
From Family Process, March 1, 2004; By Lyman C. Wynne

The death of Dr. Margaret Singer on November 23, 2003, has evoked an outpouring of grief, admiration, and tribute in the public press. She has been recognized as "the foremost authority on brainwashing in the entire world." Her loss has distressed not only the many victims of "coercive persuasion," but also those family members, professionals, and paraprofessionals who have struggled to understand and cope with what she called the "cults in our midst."

However, before focusing on cults for much of the last quarter century, Margaret had already established herself as a leader in two other arenas of study and treatment. First, during the 1950s she had become a leading researcher in the field of psychosomatic medicine and was elected President of the American Psychosomatic Society as recently as 1972-1973.

Meanwhile, because she and I both had been keenly interested in communication, a phenomenon on the path between health and disorder, we were introduced to one another in 1958. For more than 15 years we commuted between Berkeley and Bethesda/Rochester, a week in each setting most months. We spent many, many hours listening closely to tapes of psychiatrically ill persons, especially those identified as schizophrenic patients. More closely still, we examined communication of members of their families in the contexts of family therapy and standardized research tasks. During these years Margaret became best known as a family researcher and therapist.

For eight years she was a constructive member of the Board of Directors of Family Process.

On a very personal note, I can say that the long-term, close collaboration, bouncing ideas back and forth with Margaret, was an experience of genuine mutuality. Though we worked with speech samples collected in a variety of ways, Margaret's special skill and experience with Rorschach protocols was most productive. Unconventionally, we were most interested in the conceptualization of family members, individually and conjointly, viewed as a transactional process between tester and family member, or family members with one another. Thus, we were able to use the concept of the family as a system within which some aspects melded together relationally, and other, excluded features were outside the family's psychological boundary.

In retrospect, this "family research" was hard work and good fun. In her research, Margaret engendered a vibrant, creative spark that opened the eyes of many a colleague and student. As a clinician she was able to observe and clarify incredibly nasty problems brought to her by a great diversity of clients and consultees. She, and her astutely penetrating insights, will be sorely missed.

 

From San Francisco Chronicle, Tuesday November 25, 2003

By Steven Rubenstein, Chronicle staff writer.  Kevin Fagan contributed to this report.

 Margaret Singer, the soft-spoken but hard-edged Berkeley psychologist and expert on brainwashing who studied and helped authorities and victims better understand the Peoples Temple, Branch Davidian, Unification Church and Symbionese Liberation Army cults, has died.

Professor Singer, 82, died Sunday after a long illness at Alta Bates Medical Center in Berkeley.

"She's one of a kind, the foremost authority on brainwashing in the entire world,'' said lawyer Paul Morantz in an interview last year. Morantz led the effort against the Synanon cult in the 1970s. "She is a national treasure.''

She testified in the 1976 bank robbery trial of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst, who was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army, and at the 1977 hearing for five young members of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church whose parents sought to have them "deprogrammed.''

On the witness stand or in the kitchen of her Berkeley hills home, where Professor Singer did much of her work, she was calm, authoritative, smart, unshakable, funny and unfailingly polite.

She interviewed more than 3,000 cult members, assisted in more than 200 court cases and also was a leading authority on schizophrenia and family therapy.

"I might look like a little old grandma, but I'm no pushover,'' she told a reporter last year, just before tossing back another shot of Bushmills Irish whiskey, her libation of choice.

"My mom spent her whole life assisting other people -- victims, parents or lawyers -- and often for free,'' said Sam Singer, a San Francisco publicist. "Nothing gave her greater joy than helping to get someone unscrewed up.''

She was occasionally threatened by cult leaders and their followers, and she never backed down. Professor Singer liked to tell how, at the age of 80, she frightened off a stalker who had been leaving menacing notes in her mailbox.

"I've got a 12-gauge shotgun up here, sonny, and you'd better get off my porch, or you'll be sorry!'' she hollered out the window. "And tell your handlers not to send you back!''

She was born in Denver, where her father was the chief engineer at the U. S. Mint. She received her bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees from the University of Denver.

She began to study brainwashing in the 1950s at Walter Reed Institute of Research in Washington, D. C., where she interviewed U.S. soldiers who had been taken prisoner during the Korean War. She came to Berkeley in 1958 and found herself in a prime spot to study the cult scene of the 1960s and 1970s.

"I started hearing from families who had missing members, many of them young kids on our campus, and they all would describe the same sorts of things, '' she said. "A sudden change of personality, a new way of talking . . . and then they would disappear. And bingo, it was the same sort of thing as with the Korean War prisoners, the same sort of thought-reform and social controls. ''

"You find it again and again, any time people feel vulnerable,'' she said.

"There are always sharpies around who want to hornswoggle people.''

She dispensed much of her advice over the phone, which always seemed to be ringing with anxious parents, victims or lawyers from around the world, all seeking advice. For decades, she also held court at a large table near the front door of Brennan's bar and restaurant in West Berkeley, where she and her husband, Jerome, were Tuesday night regulars and where she would treat friends and admirers to corned beef, cabbage and multiple rounds of Irish coffee.

She was the author of "Cults in Our Midst,'' the authoritative 1995 study on cults that she revised earlier this year with analysis of the connection between cults and terrorism. She was the winner of the Hofheimer Prize and the Dean Award from the American College of Psychiatrists and of achievement awards from the Mental Health Association of the United States and the American Family Therapy Association. She was a past president of the American Psychosomatic Society and a board member of the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute Review Board and the American Family Foundation.

She is survived by her husband of 48 years, Jerome, and by two children, Sam and Martha, all of Berkeley.

A funeral will be held at 1 p.m. on Monday at the McNary-Morgan, Engle and Jackson funeral home, 3630 Telegraph Ave, Oakland. Memorial donations may be sent to the American Family Foundation, P.O. Box 413005, Suite 313, Naples, Fla., 34101 [Better to send to P.O. Box 2265, Bonita Springs, FL 34133].

From the Oakland Tribune

Former UC educator was psychologist, champion of free thought and an expert on cults

By Katherine Pfrommer, STAFF WRITER


Thursday, November 27, 2003 - BERKELEY -- Margaret Singer -- a professor, psychologist, champion of free thought and world-renowned expert on cults and brainwashing -- died Nov. 23 at Alta Bates Summit Medical Center after a long illness. She was 82.

"My mom was really one of the world's leading experts on cults and she spent her lifetime fighting for people's ability to think and act freely," son Sam Singer of Berkeley said. "She was engaged in one of the most important intellectual battles in the world -- the fight against George Orwell's vision of a "1984" state or cult that would affect people's beliefs and behavior."

Well-versed with the likes of Peoples Temple, Branch Davidian, Symbionese Liberation Army, Unification Church and other groups, Mrs. Singer testified in hundreds of cases in court -- but she also assisted anyone who called her listed home phone number asking for help.

"My mother's kitchen was action central for the anti-cult movement from the 60s up until the beginning of this year when she got ill," her son said. "You couldn't put the phone down without it ringing again. It wouldn't matter if it was Thanksgiving or Christmas day, the phone would ring, ring, ring."

Born July 29, 1921, in Denver, Colo., Mrs. Singer earned her degrees at the University of Denver, obtaining her Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1952.

In the 1950s, she studied the effects of brainwashing on Korean War veterans at Walter Reed Army Institute in Washington, D.C., where she became fascinated with coercive psychological techniques and persuasion -- what became known as brainwashing.

While in Washington, D.C., she met her future husband, Jerome Singer, in an elevator. The two moved to Berkeley in late 1950s and both became professors at UC Berkeley. The couple was married for 48 years and have two children.

Mrs. Singer noticed the similarities between the brainwashing techniques applied to the Korean War veterans and cult members early on, and described six conditions which were created to take control over a person's mind against their will, her son said.

Among the cases Mrs. Singer testified for were the 1976 bank robbery trial of Patricia Hearst, who was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army, and a 1977 trial about deprogramming members of the Unification Church, or "Moonies."

"She was so helpful, so willing to give her time," said colleague Hal Reynolds, student affairs officer and director of cult awareness program at UC Berkeley. "It was like having a wonderful resource -- who was also warm, witty and tough at the same time. She did a lot for UC Berkeley."

From the Los Angeles Times

Brainwashing Expert Dies of Pneumonia

By Dennis McLellan


Margaret Thaler Singer, one of the world’s leading experts on cults and brainwashing – who served as an expert witness in numerous high-profile court cases, including testifying for the defense in the 1976 bank-robbery trial of kidnapped newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst – has died. She was 82.

Singer, a clinical psychologist and former psychology professor at the University of California, Berkeley, who also was known for her work on schizophrenia, died of pneumonia Sunday in a Berkeley hospital after a long illness.

Singer, who did groundbreaking research on the brainwashing of U.S. soldiers captured during the Korean War, often was sought out by lawyers as an expert witness and by the news media for comment in high-profile cases, including the People’s Temple and the mass murder-suicide at Jonestown, Guyana, the search for the Hillside Strangler in Los Angeles, and the Branch Davidian and Heaven’s Gate cults. Over the years, she interviewed more than 4,000 cult members, including Charles Manson and many of his followers.

Singer interviewed Hearst extensively after her capture in 1975. Kidnapped by the revolutionary Symbionese Liberation Army in 1974, Hearst eventually joined her captors and participated in an armed bank robbery.

Enlisted to determine whether Hearst had been brainwashed into delivering the group’s revolutionary ideology, Singer testified in a hearing outside the jury’s presence that she had studied Hearst’s speech patterns and concluded that on most of the seven tape recordings issued by the SLA, Hearst was reading statements written by her captors.

The judge, although expressing admiration for Singer’s work, agreed with the prosecutor’s argument that Singer’s conclusion should be kept from the jury because the study was “in a field that has never before been accepted as a subject upon which expert testimony can be given.”

The trial, which resulted in Hearst’s conviction, greatly boosted Singer’s stature as an expert in brainwashing.

She was born July 29, 1921, in Denver, where her father was the chief operating engineer at the U.S. Mint and her mother was a secretary to a federal judge.

Singer, who played cello in the Denver Civic Symphony while attending the University of Denver, received a bachelor’s degree in speech and a master’s degree in speech pathology and special education.

After earning a Ph.D. in clinical psychology in 1943, she worked for eight years in the department of psychiatry at the University of Colorado’s School of Medicine.

In 1953, she began working as a psychologist for the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, D.C., where she specialized in studying returned prisoners of the Korean War who had been brainwashed into denouncing the United States and embracing communism.

She did further research, with a heavy focus on schizophrenia, with the National Institute of Mental Health, the Air Force and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

She moved to Berkeley in the late 1950s, becoming an adjunct professor at the university when her husband, Jerome R. Singer, joined the physics department faculty. She was a professor of psychology at UC Berkeley from 1964 to 1991.

Singer, who lectured around the world, received dozens of national honors for her work, including the Hofheimer Prize for Research in 1966 from the American College of Psychiatrists and the Stanley R. Dean Award for Research in Schizophrenia in 1976 from the American College of Psychiatrists.

Singer is survived by her husband; a son, Sam; a daughter, Martha; and five grandchildren.

From the San Jose Mercury News

 

San Jose Mercury News, Wednesday, November 26, 2003

By Jessica Portner

 

UC-BERKELEY PSYCHOLOGY PROFESSOR DID RESEARCH ON BRAINWASHING

 

Margaret Singer, the world-renowned professor emeritus of psychology at UC-Berkeley who demystified cults through groundbreaking research on brainwashing and testified at trials against the Unification Church and the Symbionese Liberation Army, died Sunday at Alta Bates Medical Center in Berkeley. She was 82.

 

A soft-spoken woman and brilliant researcher, Mrs. Singer interviewed more than 3,000 cult members and testified at more than 200 trials, including the 1976 bank robbery trial of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst, who had been kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. The group was a radical band formed in Berkeley during the Vietnam era that abducted the 19-year-old heiress, calling her “a prisoner of war” before she was persuaded to join them in their crimes.

 

Mrs. Singer also took the stand on behalf of the parents of five members of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. The parents alleged their children had been brainwashed by church teachings.

 

Richard Ofshe, a professor of social psychology at the University of California-Berkeley, a self-described “sidekick” of Mrs. Singer's, said she was a dream to work with -- unless you were a lawyer cross-examining her in court.

 

“She was like a little old lady with steel tips in her tennies,” Ofshe said. “I saw attorneys break into tears trying to cross-examine her. It's hard to beat on a little old lady who was a lot smarter than they were.”

 

The only child of an Irish Catholic family, Mrs. Singer was born in 1923 in Denver, where her father was the chief engineer at the U.S. Mint. Mrs. Singer received a doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Denver.

 

Her fascination with mind-control techniques began in 1952 when she took a post at the Walter Reed Institute of Research in Washington, D.C. There, she interviewed U.S. soldiers who had been forced to make treasonous statements while they were prisoners during the Korean War.

 

Mrs. Singer's interest in cults grew when she arrived in Berkeley in 1957. It was an ideal location to study the blossoming New Age cult scene of the 1960s and 1970s where Hare Krishnas and the Unification Church were actively soliciting members around the campus.

 

In a 2001 Mercury News interview about her groundbreaking research on cult leadership and indoctrinating tactics, Mrs. Singer said, “People are basically lonely. They want to join something. The more mysterious it is, the more inviting and intriguing.” She noted cults often recruit members by using flattery, offering friendship, respect, and pretending to trade secrets.

 

More recently, Mrs. Singer co-wrote “Cults in Our Midst,” a 1995 study on cults that she revised earlier this year with analysis of the connection between cults and terrorism. She won the Hofheimer Prize and the Dean Award from the American College of Psychiatrists.

 

David Clark, an American Family Foundation associate who has worked with cult-affected families, said that despite her fame, Mrs. Singer would routinely console families whose children had been in cults over the years.

 

“She understood their plight and realized what a lonely place these families are in because they went through conventional avenues of lawyers and clergy and didn't get more support,” Clark said.

 

Brenda Daeges, who lives in Bellevue, Neb., was one of those frequent callers.  “I was a mess when I met Margaret,” said Daeges, a former member of the Apostles of Infinite Love cult who met Mrs. Singer at a conference. “I tried to get her to help my family. She would let me call her collect. I don't know how many times she saved me.”

 

Her son, Sam Singer, president of Singer and Associates, a San Francisco consulting firm, said his mother was never deterred by those who sought to stop her. There were numerous break-in attempts at her rambling Berkeley home. Singer said his mother would deter prowlers by threatening to shoot trespassers with a 12-gauge shotgun -- even though she didn't own one.

 

“She was always extremely cautious because there's a lot of people who tried to hurt her,” Singer said. “She always stood up for what she believed in.”

 

Margaret Singer

 

Born: July 29, 1923, in Denver

Died: Nov. 23, 2003, in Berkeley

 

Survived by: Her husband of 48 years, Jerome, and by her children, Sam and Martha, all of Berkeley.

 

Services: Will be held at 1 p.m. Monday at the McNary-Morgan, Engle and Jackson funeral home in Oakland.

 

Memorial: Donations may be sent to the American Family Foundation, Box 413005, Suite 313, Naples, Fla., 34101 [Better to send to P.O. Box 2265, Bonita Springs, FL 34133].

 

From the New York Times

 

December 7, 2003
By Anahad O'Connor

 

Dr. Margaret Singer, a leading expert on brainwashing who testified in several high-profile cases contending that various groups inappropriately manipulated their members to control their behavior, died on Nov. 23 in Berkeley, Calif. She was 82.
The cause was respiratory failure, said her son, Sam.

In her long career, Dr. Singer investigated and testified about techniques used by North Koreans against American soldiers in wartime and the Symbionese Liberation Army's influence over the kidnapped heiress Patricia Hearst.

In the 1950's, Dr. Singer interviewed a number of American soldiers who had renounced the United States after returning from captivity in North Korea. The soldiers, she found, had been isolated and plied with propaganda, at times under the threat of physical harm.

Years later, she testified in defense of Ms. Hearst in a case that brought Dr. Singer national recognition and helped generate public curiosity about mind control.

Dr. Singer and her colleagues delved into a little known area of psychology at the trial, arguing that Ms. Hearst had helped rob a bank because she had been brainwashed to embrace the values of the Symbionese Liberation Army, which abducted her.

The group, the team argued, subjected Ms. Hearst to intensely stressful conditions, like isolating her from family and friends and locking her in a closet for six weeks, allowing its members to indoctrinate her and force a bizarre behavioral transformation.

Though Ms. Hearst was convicted, the trial bolstered Dr. Singer's reputation as an expert on mind control. In the following years, she repeatedly testified against the Unification Church, led by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon.

In one case, a libel suit against The Daily Mail of London, she argued that the church was a cult that brainwashed its members by showering them with intense affection, a process she called "love-bombing."

Dr. Singer said that she had interviewed hundreds of members of the church and testified that its techniques for mind control were more powerful than those used by the North Koreans on their war prisoners. The church lost its case.

"This has put us back to the start of the road again," Michael Marshall, an official of the church, said at the time of the lawsuit. "But we shall continue to fight for recognition and to show that we are a genuine religious movement."

Dr. Singer went on to testify as an expert witness in dozens of cases against groups she described as destructive cults. Former members of the groups or the anguished families of members, like some of the people who lost relatives among the Branch Davidians in the Waco, Tex., in 1993, would often seek her advice.

Several members of the People's Temple, with Dr. Singer's help, left that group before 900 people committed mass suicide in Guyana in 1978.

Dr. Singer would often help win lawsuits against groups that former members claimed had lured them into dark, insular worlds that left them psychologically traumatized.

"Her testimony would help people understand the clinical impact of a cult's manipulation and exploitation," said Dr. Richard Ofshe, a sociology professor at the University of California at Berkeley who worked with Dr. Singer for 20 years. "There was a constant stream of people who would go into these organizations and end up in psychiatric emergency rooms."

Dr. Singer's battles made her a target for harassment and death threats. At times, she found dead animals on her doorstep.

Margaret Thaler Singer was born in Denver and earned her bachelor's degree, master's degree and Ph.D. from the University of Denver. She became an adjunct professor at Berkeley in the 1950's.

Dr. Singer conducted several widely known studies on schizophrenia and was a renowned family therapist. She spent much of her career at Berkeley, but also taught at the University of Rochester and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, among others.

In addition to her son, Dr. Singer is survived by her husband, Dr. Jerome R. Singer; a daughter, Martha Singer, also of Berkeley; and five grandchildren.
 

 

Mercury News Staff Writer Sarah Lubman contributed to this report. Contact Jessica Portner at jportner@mercurynews.com or (408) 920-2729.

 

 

 

 

Attacks on Peripheral versus Central Elements of Self and the Impact of Thought Reforming Techniques
Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 3, No.1.,
Psychotherapy Cults
Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2
Cults, Coercion, and Contumely
Cultic Studies Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2
Undue Influence and Written Documents: Psychological Aspects
Cultic Studies Journal, Vol.10, No.1
Order: Undue Influence and Written Documents: Psychological Aspects
Churches That Abuse
Ronald M. Enroth. Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI, 1992, 227 pages.
Volume 10, No. 1, 1993
Reviewer
Other Contribution:
Mistakes Families Make  
Cults, Psychological Manipulation:
1992, Arlington, Virginia Video Available
"Crazy" Therapies
National Institute of Health, January 17, 1997,  Bethesda, MD Video Available
 
When Psychotherapists Do Harm 
National Institute of Health, January 17, 1997,  Bethesda, MD Video Available
 
Treatment Issues; Cults: Theory and Treatment Issues Video Available
Conference May 30, 1997, Philadelphia
 
Mind Manipulation, Cults, and Domestic Violence: Professional & Personal Perspectives
Psychological Manipulation: The Abuse of Women Conference, May 30, 1997, Philadelphia Video Available
Keynote Address- Psychological Manipulation: How it Works and Why Women are Vulnerable;  "Crazy" Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work?
Symposium -Treatment and Cults: What Works with Whom; Psychological Manipulation: The Abuse of Women Conference, May 30 and May 31, 1997, Philadelphia
 
AFF Annual Conference: Children and Cults

May 29 - May 31, 1998, Philadelphia, PA

AFF Annual  Conference: Jonestown Memorial
November 13-15, 1998, Chicago, IL

1999 Conference: Cults, Psychological Manipulation & Society, Minneapolis, MN, May 14-19, 1999

Bio:

Margaret Thaler Singer, Ph.D. is a clinical psychologist and emeritus adjunct professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology from the University of Denver, and she has been a practicing clinician, researcher, and teacher for nearly fifty years.

Singer's major area of work--how people influence one another-- grew directly out of her undergraduate and graduate work in speech and psychology, and the study of cults has been a special area of her research. Over the years Singer has counseled and interviewed more than three thousand current and former cult members: In 1978 she was awarded the Leo J. Ryan Memorial Award, named in honor of the U.S. Representative murdered in Jonestown, Guyana.

Over the past two decades Singer has been an active consultant and expert witness in many legal cases and has appeared frequently on television discussing influence and persuasion.

She is co-author of Cults in Our Midst and "Crazy" Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work? 

The author of more than one hundred articles published in professional journals, she has received numerous national honors for her various research work, including awards from the American Psychiatric Association, the American College of Psychiatrists, the National Mental Health Association, the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, and the American Family Therapy Association. She also held a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health and was the first woman and first clinical psychologist elected president of the American Psychosomatic Society.

Singer lives in Berkeley with her husband, Jay, a physicist whose special contributions have been in the development of magnetic resonance imaging. Her son is a public relations and political consultant, and her daughter is a resident in orthopedic surgery. Singer is the happy grandmother of twin boys.

Profile:

Other resources available:

Video: What is a Cult? and How Does it Work?

Video: Leaving A Cult: Information About Exiting and Recovery for  Ex-Members, Families, and Friends

 

_

 

Resources

+ AFF News, 03.01: Lalich, Janja Ph.D.: "Crazy" Therapies: What are They? Do They Work? - The Therapeutic Relationship
+ AFF News, 03.03: Lalich, Janja Ph.D.: "We Own Her Now"
= Churches That Abuse
Singer, Margaret T., Ph.D.: "Undue Influence and Written Documents: Psychological Aspects"
Singer, Margaret Thaler, Ph.D.: "Post-Cult After Effects"
Singer, Margaret, Ph.D.: "Crazy" Therapies: What Are They? Do They Work?"
Singer, Margaret, Ph.D.: "How United States Marine Corps Differ from Cults"
Singer, Margaret, Ph.D.: "Psychotherapy Cults"
Singer, Margaret: "Coming Out of the Cults"
Singer, Margaret: "Cults, Coercion And Contumely"
Singet Margaret, Ph.D.: "Thought Reform Exists: Organized, Programmatic Influence"
Sirkin, Mark Ph.D.: "Mistakes Families Make"
Ω Conference 1997: PA Presenter
Ω Conference 2000 WA: Speakers
√ Langone, Michael: "Recovery From Cults"
√ Singer, Margaret: "'Crazy'" Therapies"
√ Singer, Margaret: "'Crazy'" Therapies"
√ Singer, Margaret: "Cults In Our Midst: Hidden Menace in Our Lives
√ Video: "After the Cult: Recovering Together"
√ Video: "Cults Saying No Under Pressure"
√ Video: "Theory and Treatment Issues" from May 1991 Conference: Mind Manipulation, Cults, and Domestic Violence

 

 

 

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Groups listed, described, or referred to on ICSA's Web sites may be mainstream or nonmainstream, controversial or noncontroversial, religious or nonreligious, cult or not cult, harmful or benign.

We encourage inquirers to consider a variety of opinions, negative and positive, so that inquirers can make independent and informed judgments pertinent to their particular concerns.

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

See:  Definitional Issues Collection; Understanding Groups Collection
 

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

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