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WHY WE USE SYMBOLS/ICONS IN OUR LISTS.

Please note:

ICSA does NOT maintain a list of "bad" groups or "cults."  We nonjudgmentally list groups on which we have information.

Groups listed, described, or referred to on ICSA's Web sites may be mainstream or nonmainstream, controversial or noncontroversial, religious or nonreligious, cult or not cult, harmful or benign.

We encourage inquirers to consider a variety of opinions, negative and positive, so that inquirers can make independent and informed judgments pertinent to their particular concerns.

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

See:  Definitional Issues Collection; Understanding Groups Collection
 

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

Cult Formation

Robert J. Lifton, M.D.

John Jay College

Abstract

Cults represent one aspect of a worldwide epidemic of ideological totalism, or fundamentalism.  They tend to be associated with a charismatic leader, thought reform, and exploitation of members.  Among the methods of thought reform commonly used by cults are milieu control, mystical manipulation, the demand for purity, a cult of confession, sacred science, loading the language, doctrine over person, and dispensing of existence.  The current historical context of dislocation from organizing symbolic structures, decaying belief systems concerning religion, authority, marriage, family, and death, and a "protean style" of continuous psychological experimentation with the self is conducive to the growth of cults.  The use of coercion, as in certain forms of "deprogramming," to deal with the restrictions of individual liberty associated with cults is inconsistent with the civil rights tradition.  Yet legal intervention may be indicated when specific laws are broken.

Reprint Available CSJ08.01A

_

 

Resources

Giambalvo, Carol: "What is a Thought Reform Consultant?"
Langone, Michael, Ph.D.: "Cults and Mind Control"
Lifton, Robert J., M.D.: "Cult Formation"
Lifton, Robert J., M.D.: "Cult Formation" - abstract
Lifton, Robert J., M.D.: "Lifton's Eight Criteria for Thought Reform"
Lifton, Robert J., M.D.: "Lifton's Eight Criteria for Thought Reform"
Lifton, Robert, J. M.D.: "Cult Formation"
Singer, Margaret T., Ph.D.: "Undue Influence and Written Documents: Psychological Aspects"
Singet Margaret, Ph.D.: "Thought Reform Exists: Organized, Programmatic Influence"
Zimbardo, Philip, Ph.D.: "Mind Control: Psychological Reality or Mindless Rhetoric?"
√ Lifton, Robert, J.: "Thought Reform & the Psychology of Totalism"
≈ Cult Information Center - UK
≈ ex-morninglanders.com - link
≈ FactNet - link
≈ InfoCult - link
≈ Religious Groups Awareness Network - REGAIN - link
≈ Skeptic's Refuge - link

 

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Our E-Library contains full text articles and other resources related to the information below.  Click here.

WHY WE USE SYMBOLS/ICONS IN OUR LISTS.

Please note:

ICSA does NOT maintain a list of "bad" groups or "cults."  We nonjudgmentally list groups on which we have information.

Groups listed, described, or referred to on ICSA's Web sites may be mainstream or nonmainstream, controversial or noncontroversial, religious or nonreligious, cult or not cult, harmful or benign.

We encourage inquirers to consider a variety of opinions, negative and positive, so that inquirers can make independent and informed judgments pertinent to their particular concerns.

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

See:  Definitional Issues Collection; Understanding Groups Collection
 

Views expressed on our Web sites are those of the document's author(s) and are not necessarily shared, endorsed, or recommended by ICSA or any of its directors, staff, or advisors.

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